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close this bookA Guide to the Development of on-site Sanitation (WHO; 1992; 246 pages)
View the documentPreface
close this folderPart I. Foundations of sanitary practice
close this folderChapter 1. The need for on-site sanitation
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentHistorical evidence
View the documentThe present situation
View the documentConstraints
View the documentPriorities
open this folder and view contentsChapter 2. Sanitation and disease transmission
open this folder and view contentsChapter 3. Social and cultural considerations
open this folder and view contentsChapter 4. Technical options
open this folder and view contentsPart II. Detailed design, construction, operation and maintenance
open this folder and view contentsPart III. Planning and development of on-site sanitation projects
View the documentReferences
View the documentSelected further reading
View the documentGlossary of terms used in this book
View the documentAnnex 1. Reuse of excreta
View the documentAnnex 2. Sullage
View the documentAnnex 3. Reviewers
View the documentSelected WHO publications of related interest
View the documentBack Cover
 

Constraints

The many constraints on improving health through better sanitation centre on the political, economic, social and cultural contexts of health and disease. Worldwide surveys conducted by WHO identified the following as the most serious constraints:

 

- funding limitations;
- insufficiency of trained personnel;
- operation and maintenance;
- logistics;
- inadequate cost-recovery framework;
- insufficient health education efforts;
- inappropriate institutional framework;
- intermittent water service;
- non-involvement of communities.
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