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close this bookA Guide to the Development of on-site Sanitation (WHO; 1992; 246 pages)
View the documentPreface
close this folderPart I. Foundations of sanitary practice
open this folder and view contentsChapter 1. The need for on-site sanitation
open this folder and view contentsChapter 2. Sanitation and disease transmission
close this folderChapter 3. Social and cultural considerations
View the documentSocial structure
View the documentCultural beliefs and practices
View the documentConcepts of hygiene
View the documentBeliefs about sanitation and disease
View the documentForces for change
View the documentResponses to change
View the documentConclusion
open this folder and view contentsChapter 4. Technical options
open this folder and view contentsPart II. Detailed design, construction, operation and maintenance
open this folder and view contentsPart III. Planning and development of on-site sanitation projects
View the documentReferences
View the documentSelected further reading
View the documentGlossary of terms used in this book
View the documentAnnex 1. Reuse of excreta
View the documentAnnex 2. Sullage
View the documentAnnex 3. Reviewers
View the documentSelected WHO publications of related interest
View the documentBack Cover
 

Forces for change

All societies undergo adjustments in their social structure and culture over time. This may result from contact between societies or from alterations in the physical environment such as prolonged drought. Further, changes in development practice and in international aid influence national goals and priorities with respect to different sectors and regions. How change is brought about and what it is that changes are important issues that need to be addressed.

The profound impact of forces for change on diverse societies finds expression in patterns of apparently increasing uniformity between countries and cultures. In demographic terms, these include rapid rates of national population growth, and internal migration of people from rural to urban areas coupled with urban expansion.

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