To identify a demand for improved sanitation is more positive than to initiate a supply of technology that is deemed to be good for communities. The former depends upon cooperation between providers and beneficiaries which comes through dialogue and the exchange of information. Individual users are the ultimate decision-makers in the acceptance or rejection of new technology. It is they who determine the success of a project, since the value of the investment depends not only upon community support but, more particularly, on the consent of households and individual users. They need to be convinced that the benefits of improved sanitation, and the new technology with which it is associated, outweigh the costs. Equally, it is for providers to appreciate the social context and the constraints within which individual decisions are made. They must learn from communities about why improved sanitation may elicit negative responses and also the positive features of community values, beliefs and practices which can be harnessed to promote change.