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close this bookA Guide to the Development of on-site Sanitation (WHO; 1992; 246 pages)
View the documentPreface
close this folderPart I. Foundations of sanitary practice
open this folder and view contentsChapter 1. The need for on-site sanitation
open this folder and view contentsChapter 2. Sanitation and disease transmission
open this folder and view contentsChapter 3. Social and cultural considerations
close this folderChapter 4. Technical options
View the documentOpen defecation
View the documentShallow pit
View the documentSimple pit latrine
View the documentBorehole latrine
View the documentVentilated pit latrine
View the documentPour-flush latrine
View the documentSingle or double pit
View the documentComposting latrine
View the documentSeptic tank
View the documentAqua-privy
View the documentRemoval systems for excreta
open this folder and view contentsPart II. Detailed design, construction, operation and maintenance
open this folder and view contentsPart III. Planning and development of on-site sanitation projects
View the documentReferences
View the documentSelected further reading
View the documentGlossary of terms used in this book
View the documentAnnex 1. Reuse of excreta
View the documentAnnex 2. Sullage
View the documentAnnex 3. Reviewers
View the documentSelected WHO publications of related interest
View the documentBack Cover
 

Chapter 4. Technical options

In this chapter various sanitation systems are introduced with a brief indication of their suitability for particular situations, the constraints on their use, and their disadvantages. The whole range of options is covered, including off-site systems and some that are not recommended because of the associated health risk and other disadvantages. Each community must choose the most feasible and convenient option to provide necessary health protection. Selecting the most appropriate option requires a thorough analysis of all factors including cost, cultural acceptability, simplicity of design and construction, operation and maintenance, and local availability of materials and skills. Further details of the design, construction, operation and maintenance of these systems are given in Part II.

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