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close this bookA Guide to the Development of on-site Sanitation (WHO; 1992; 246 pages)
View the documentPreface
open this folder and view contentsPart I. Foundations of sanitary practice
open this folder and view contentsPart II. Detailed design, construction, operation and maintenance
close this folderPart III. Planning and development of on-site sanitation projects
close this folderChapter 9. Planning
View the documentThe demand for sanitation
View the documentProject definition
View the documentBackground information
View the documentComparison and selection of systems
open this folder and view contentsChapter 10. Institutional, economic and financial factors
open this folder and view contentsChapter 11. Development
View the documentReferences
View the documentSelected further reading
View the documentGlossary of terms used in this book
View the documentAnnex 1. Reuse of excreta
View the documentAnnex 2. Sullage
View the documentAnnex 3. Reviewers
View the documentSelected WHO publications of related interest
View the documentBack Cover
 

The demand for sanitation

The initial demand for provision or improvement of sanitation in a particular area may come from the local people themselves or from a small group of active leaders in the community. Alternatively, the initiative may come from health officials, a government department, the organization responsible for water and sanitation, a bilateral aid agency, or a national or international voluntary organization. Ideally, sanitation improvements should be carried out in accordance with a national or regional sector plan and the adopted primary health care programme. A sector plan often covers both sanitation and water supply. It indicates the number of facilities to be provided, the number of people to be served in each district on a year-by-year basis during the planning period, and the resources needed. Particular attention is usually given to requirements for internal and external funding and to deficiencies in personnel of various categories.

There may be several reasons for a sanitation programme.

 

• There may be a genuine concern for health accompanied by an awareness that a high local level of disease is associated with existing sanitation practices.

• Household latrines may be called for because of the convenience they offer to users.

• Good sanitation may be a status symbol.

• Existing excreta disposal methods may result in unacceptable pollution of surface water, soil or groundwater.

• Sometimes a demand for improved sanitation is associated with water supply. For example, a funding agency may require latrines to be constructed before it will provide piped water, or a water authority may wish to protect the catchment area for the supply to a nearby town by eliminating indiscriminate defecation. An increase in the amount of water provided to an area may lead to a demand for better wastewater disposal.

Table 9.1. The project cycle

Government ministries and donor agencies

Implementing agency

Community

Identification

Definition of target population

 

Felt need for improved sanitation

Determination of economic and health indicators, present service coverage and standards, objectives and policies, financial implications, staffing requirements, and training needs

 

Exposure to health education

Assignment of planning responsibilities

   

Pre-feasibility surveys

Consideration of alternative projects to meet objectives taking into account technical, social, health, environmental, financial and economic criteria

Technical and social surveys

Response to questions by health workers and government officials about health, wealth, water and sanitation

 

Planning with the community

 

Feasibility demonstration

Detailed design and analysis of preferred/chosen project

Proving of recommended range of technologies at affordable price to satisfaction of representatives of proposed target group

Discussion regarding experimentation with affordable means of improving sanitation

Appraisal and approval

Independent check on planning, usually by representatives of funding source

   

Investment decision

   

Release of funds for project implementation

   

Implementation

Consolidation

 

Training, administrative support procedures, proving technology

Training of local people to assist with programme

 

Determination of financial, material and technical support

Invitation to local artisans and contractors to participate

   

Drawings made available

Expansion

 

Mass promotion in the community

Publicity about the programme

 

Health education, use of media

Systems available to copy

 

Demonstration units as "sanitation supermarket"

Drawings made available

 

Financial, material and technical assistance where appropriate

Financial assistance available

   

Local artisans and contractors available to help with building

   

Household decision as to purchase of sanitation system

Operation and maintenance

 

Advice on responsibility of household to use and care for on-site system

Use of facilities

Evaluation

Identification of further projects

Identification of positive and negative aspects; reformulation of design criteria

Comments regarding desired improvements

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