The clinical features of uncomplicated malaria are too non-specific for a clinical diagnosis of the species of malaria infection to be made. Diagnosis of P. vivax malaria is based on microscopy. Although rapid diagnostic tests based on immunochromatographic methods are available for the detection of non-falciparum malaria, their sensitivities below parasite densities of 500/µl are low. Their relatively high cost is a further impediment to their wide use in endemic areas. Molecular markers for genotyping P. vivax parasites have been developed to assist epidemiological and treatment studies but these are still under evaluation.