Resistance to antimalarials has been documented for P. falciparum, P. vivax and, recently, P. malariae.
In P. falciparum, resistance has been observed to almost all currently used antimalarials (amodiaquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine and sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine) except for artemisinin and its derivatives. The geographical distributions and rates of spread have varied considerably.
P. vivax has developed resistance rapidly to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in many areas. Chloroquine resistance is confined largely to Indonesia, East Timor, Papua New Guinea and other parts of Oceania. There are also documented reports