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close this bookThiamine Deficiency and its Prevention and Control in Major Emergencies (WHO; 1999; 62 pages)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentThiamine deficiency: Definition
open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
open this folder and view contentsThiamine deficiency
open this folder and view contentsThiamine, the vitamin
open this folder and view contentsRDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) for Thiamine
open this folder and view contentsSources of thiamine
open this folder and view contentsFactors influencing content and utilization of thiamine in foods
open this folder and view contentsStrategies to prevent thiamine deficiency in large populations affected by emergencies
open this folder and view contentsConclusions and recommendations
View the documentReferences
View the documentAnnex 1: Summary of major symptoms of thiamine deficiency in adults, adolescents and older children
View the documentAnnex 2: Summary of major symptoms of thiamine deficiency in infants
close this folderAnnex 3: Tables
View the documentTable A: Average thiamine content of some foods
View the documentTable B. Thiamine losses in food processing
View the documentTable C. Studies on experimental thiamine deficiency in humans showing intakes of thiamine with the corresponding urinary excretion rate and clinical signs
View the documentBack cover
 

Table B. Thiamine losses in food processing

Food item

Procedure

Percent Loss

wheat

milling (70% extraction)

70

bread

baking, commercial

15 - 20

milk

pasteurization

< 10

milk

sterilisation

20

milk

canning

30 - 50

meats

convection cooking

25 - 85

vegetables

heating with water

0 - 60

vegetables

blanching (brief exposure to boiling water or steam)

2 - 30

fruits, vegetables

room temperature storage

0 - 20

fruits, vegetables

dehydration

30 - 50

Sources: Combs (1992); WHO (1967), Berry Ottoway (1993);

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