Outbreaks of scurvy, hitherto a relatively rare micronutrient deficiency disease, have increased in frequency during the last decade among refugees dependent on food aid. In 1982, an outbreak of scurvy was reported among Ethiopian refugees in Somalia (Magan et al., 1983). Outbreaks of scurvy have also occurred in Sudan (1984, 1991), Somalia (1985), Ethiopia (1989), Nepal (1992) and Kenya (1994). During a workshop on improving the nutrition of refugees and displaced people in Africa held in Machakos, Kenya in December 1994, a number of recommendations were made for the prevention and control of micronutrient deficiencies during both the emergency and protracted phases of refugee operations. Blended foods (cereal-pulse blends) have been given in recent refugee emergencies, although little is known about their actual use. Nevertheless, the inclusion of fortified blended foods in the general food ration was recommended as the most feasible approach during the emergency phase (the first 6-12 months). For the protracted phase of an operation, local availability of fresh foods, ration exchange, employment opportunities, and food production possibilities were recommended. Research into the possibility of providing vitamin C by distributing dried chili peppers, sweets, reconstituted drinks, and seeds was also recommended.