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close this bookScurvy and its Prevention and Control in Major Emergencies (WHO; 1999; 70 pages)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentScurvy: definition
open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
open this folder and view contentsScurvy
open this folder and view contentsVitamin C
open this folder and view contentsRecommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
open this folder and view contentsSources of vitamin C
close this folderStrategies to prevent scurvy in large refugee populations
View the documentBackground
close this folderMain approaches
open this folder and view contentsDistribution of fresh foods
open this folder and view contentsExchange of rations/extra rations
close this folderFortification of relief food
View the documentAdvantages
View the documentDisadvantages
View the documentFeasibility
View the documentFortification of cereals
View the documentFortification of sugar
open this folder and view contentsFortification of blended cereal-legume foods (blended foods)
open this folder and view contentsSupplementation
open this folder and view contentsPromotion of kitchen gardens
open this folder and view contentsOther options
View the documentCosts
open this folder and view contentsConclusions and recommendations
View the documentReferences
View the documentAnnex 1
View the documentAnnex 2
View the documentAnnex 3
View the documentBack Cover

Consistent with the above definition of an ideal food vehicle for fortification, it is clear that staple foods should be given priority. Refugee rations usually include cereals, oil, pulses, salt, sugar, and cereal-legume blends. Beaton (1995) recommended a cereal fortification premix for use with milled maize, and wheat- and sorghum-based rations. The recommended vitamin C content was 110 mg per 1900 kcal of the ration, which takes into account a 25% loss during storage. He suggested that the premix could be added during:

• Centralized fortification of staple cereals.

• Community-level fortification (camp-level) of all cereal before distribution to refugees;

• Household-level fortification of cereal, after distribution, when "households" grind the cereal or otherwise prepare it for consumption.

However, some experienced field workers have expressed doubts about the willingness of those responsible for household cooking to use such a premix, and to use it in the correct proportion.

The following observations can be made regarding vitamin C fortification of commodities in the general ration.

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