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close this bookScurvy and its Prevention and Control in Major Emergencies (WHO; 1999; 70 pages)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentScurvy: definition
open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
open this folder and view contentsScurvy
open this folder and view contentsVitamin C
open this folder and view contentsRecommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
open this folder and view contentsSources of vitamin C
close this folderStrategies to prevent scurvy in large refugee populations
View the documentBackground
close this folderMain approaches
open this folder and view contentsDistribution of fresh foods
open this folder and view contentsExchange of rations/extra rations
open this folder and view contentsFortification of relief food
View the documentFortification of cereals
View the documentFortification of sugar
open this folder and view contentsFortification of blended cereal-legume foods (blended foods)
open this folder and view contentsSupplementation
open this folder and view contentsPromotion of kitchen gardens
open this folder and view contentsOther options
View the documentCosts
open this folder and view contentsConclusions and recommendations
View the documentReferences
View the documentAnnex 1
View the documentAnnex 2
View the documentAnnex 3
View the documentBack Cover

Fortification of cereals

Flour. Technology exists for fortifying cereal flour with vitamin C, but losses during storage, transport and preparation have to be carefully assessed.

Whole grains. Several studies on the fortification of whole grains with vitamin C have been undertaken, e.g. by USAID. The main constraint with this technology-sucrose syrup solutions are sprayed on the surface of the grains-is the product's limited shelf life and the stability of the vitamin after exposure to heat during shipment (heat exposure can be as high as 40-50°C) and during milling and pounding (mechanical heat). Vitamin C losses during exposure to humidity and oxygen, in addition to losses during cooking, could be quite high. An advantage of un-milled cereals is that whole grain can be more easily salvaged when bags break during transportation.

Simulated rice kernels have been developed for rice fortification. Vitamin A and other vitamins can be incorporated into the simulated kernel mix which is added to normal white rice at an appropriate proportion (e.g. 1:200) to provide the proper nutrient level in the fortified rice. During cooking the nutrients are released from the premix kernels and evenly distributed throughout the product. The simulated rice kernels have the same shape and colour as the regular rice and therefore cannot be picked out and discarded as foreign particles before cooking. However, the fortification of rice with vitamin C could be a problem because of the high vitamin losses if the cooking water is discarded.

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