1. Numerous localized infections are often accompanied by transient bacteraemia: meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, peritonitis, cholecystitis, enterocolitis, traumatic or surgical wound infections, bed sores, etc.
2. Bacteraemia is a feature of some infectious diseases, e.g., typhoid fever, brucellosis, leptospirosis.
3. Bacteraemia (and fungaemia) may result from the iatrogenic introduction of microorganisms by the intravenous route: through contaminated intravenous fluids, catheters, or needle-puncture sites.
4. Transient bacteraemia may result from various surgical manipulations, but usually resolves spontaneously in healthy subjects.
5. Continuous bacteraemia is a feature of endovascular infections, e.g., endocarditis, infected aneurysm, thrombophlebitis.
6. Bacteraemia and fungaemia may develop in users of intravenous drugs. They are often caused by “opportunistic” microorganisms and may have serious consequences.