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close this bookBasic Laboratory Procedures in Clinical Bacteriology (WHO; 1991; 128 pages)
View the documentPreface
View the documentIntroduction
open this folder and view contentsQuality assurance in microbiology
close this folderPart I. Bacteriological investigations
open this folder and view contentsBlood
close this folderCerebrospinal fluid
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentCollection and transportation of specimens
View the documentMacroscopic inspection
View the documentMicroscopic examination
View the documentPreliminary identification
View the documentSusceptibility testing
open this folder and view contentsUrine
open this folder and view contentsStool
open this folder and view contentsLower respiratory tract infections
open this folder and view contentsUpper respiratory tract infections
open this folder and view contentsSexually transmitted diseases
open this folder and view contentsPurulent exudates, wounds, and abscesses
open this folder and view contentsAnaerobic bacteriology
open this folder and view contentsAntimicrobial susceptibility testing
open this folder and view contentsPart II. Essential media and reagents for isolation and identification of clinical pathogens
View the documentSelected further reading
View the documentSelected WHO publications of related interest
View the documentBack Cover
 

Macroscopic inspection

The appearance of the CSF should be noted and recorded as: clear, hazy, turbid, purulent, yellow or xanthochromic (due to haemolysis or icterus), blood-tinged, with fibrin web or pellicle.

Table 5. Causes of bacterial and fungal meningitis

In neonates (from birth to 2 months)

 

Escherichia coli
 

 

Other Enterobacteriaceae: Salmonella spp, Citrobacter spp
 

 

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)
 

 

Listeria monocytogenes
 

In all other age groups

 

Haemophilus influenzae (capsular type b)a
 

 

Neisseria meningitidis
 

 

Streptococcus pneumoniae
 

 

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
 

 

Listeria monocytogenesb
 

 

Cryptococcus neoformansb
 

 

Staphylococcic
 

 

a Uncommon after the age of 5 years.

b In immunocompromised patients (including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)).

c Associated with neurosurgery and postoperative drains.

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