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close this bookBasic Laboratory Procedures in Clinical Bacteriology (WHO; 1991; 128 pages)
View the documentPreface
View the documentIntroduction
open this folder and view contentsQuality assurance in microbiology
open this folder and view contentsPart I. Bacteriological investigations
close this folderPart II. Essential media and reagents for isolation and identification of clinical pathogens
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderPriority grading of pathogens, culture media, and diagnostic reagents
View the documentBlood culture
View the documentCerebrospinal fluid specimens
View the documentUrine
View the documentStool culture
View the documentLower respiratory tract
View the documentUpper respiratory tract
View the documentUrogenital specimens for agents of sexually transmitted diseases
View the documentPus and exudates
View the documentList of recommended culture media and diagnostic reagents for the intermediate microbiological laboratory
View the documentSelected further reading
View the documentSelected WHO publications of related interest
View the documentBack Cover

Upper respiratory tract

Common pathogens

Pathogens with high priority


Streptococcus pyogenes (group A) (throat)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (throat and nose)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (ear and sinus)
Haemophilus influenzae (ear and sinus)

Pathogens with intermediate priority


Candida albicans (oropharynx)
Staphylococcus aureus (ear and sinus)
Branhamella catarrhalis (ear and sinus)

Pathogens with low priority


Gram-negative rods and Pseudomonas (ear)
Neisseria meningitidis (nasopharyngeal carriers)

Culture media and diagnostic reagents

Isolation media

Priority code

blood agar (prepared from a carbohydrate-free base)


chocolate agar


Löffler coagulated serum or Dorset egg medium


tellurite blood agar


modified Thayer-Martin medium (for gonococci and meningococci)


Identification reagents


bacitracin disc, optochin disc


catalase and coagulase reagents


carbohydrate degradation media for Neisseria


V and XV factors (discs or strips)


Rapid diagnostic kits


grouping kit for haemolytic streptococci


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