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close this bookWHO Recommended Surveillance Standards (WHO; 1999; 157 pages)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentAcronyms
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentNational Coordination of Communicable Disease Surveillance
View the documentExplanatory notes
View the documentSurveillance activities: criteria and WHO Department
View the documentCommunicable disease contacts in Regional Offices
close this folderDiseases
View the documentB20-B21-B22-B23-B24 AIDS
View the documentA22 Anthrax
View the documentA23 Brucellosis
View the documentA00 Cholera
View the documentA81.0 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
View the documentA90, A91 Dengue fever (A90) including Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) & Dengue shock syndrome (DSS, A91)
View the documentA36 Diphtheria
View the documentB72 Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease)
View the documentA98.3, A98.4 Ebola-Marburg viral diseases
View the documentA83.0 Japanese encephalitis
View the documentB74 Lymphatic filariasis
View the documentB96.3 Haemophilus influenzae type b
View the documentB15-B17 Acute viral hepatitis
View the documentB20-B24 HIV infection
View the documentJ10, J11 Influenza
View the documentA96.2 Lassa fever
View the documentA48.1 Legionellosis
View the documentB55.1, B55.2 Cutaneous leishmaniasis
View the documentLeishmania / HIV co-infections
View the documentB55.0 Visceral leishmaniasis
View the documentA30 Leprosy
View the documentA27 Leptospirosis
View the documentB50-54 Malaria
View the documentB05 Measles
View the documentA39 Meningococcal disease
View the documentA87 Viral meningitis
View the documentB73 Onchocerciasis
View the documentA37.0 Pertussis
View the documentA20 Plague
View the documentA36 Poliomyelitis
View the documentA82 Rabies
View the documentA02.0 Salmonellosis
View the documentB65 Schistosomiasis
View the documentA50-52 Syphilis
View the documentA33 Tetanus, neonatal
View the documentB56-0, B56-1 African trypanosomiasis
View the documentB57 American trypanosomiasis
View the documentA15-A19 Tuberculosis
View the documentA75.3 Scrub typhus
View the documentA95.9 Yellow fever
open this folder and view contentsSyndromes
View the documentAnnex 1 Software free and in the public domain
View the documentAnnex 2 Proposed surveillance definitions
View the documentAnnex 3 Role and use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and mapping for epidemiological surveillance

Leishmania / HIV co-infections


Leishmania/HIV co-infections have already been reported from 30 countries. The overlap of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and AIDS is on the increase because the AIDS pandemic is spreading in rural areas and visceral leishmaniasis in suburban areas. In southern Europe, 25% to 70 % of adult cases of visceral leishmaniasis are related to HIV infection and 1.5% to 9% of AIDS cases suffer from newly acquired or reactivated visceral leishmaniasis.


WHO operational definition:


A case of co-infection is a HIV positive person showing clinical signs of leishmaniasis (visceral or cutaneous) with parasitological confirmation of the diagnosis.


Sentinel surveillance: This can be hospital-based and/or based on laboratories.

At peripheral level, hospitals and laboratories, members of the network of surveillance (28 institutions from 13 countries at the time of writing) maintain individual patient records. They use guidelines for diagnosis; a standardized case report form has recently been computerized.

Routine aggregated or case-based data of all cases reported every six months from peripheral level or central level to WHO.

Worldwide information collected, processed and rediffused (twice per year) by the central registry set up at WHO.


Case-based data (individual patient record at peripheral level, and reporting)


Identification data: Unique identifier, age, sex, geographical information, travel history, duration of stay at current residence.

Leishmaniasis data: Date of diagnosis, serological and parasitological diagnosis, Leishmania species, clinical features.

HIV data (as available): Date of diagnosis, serology, CD4/mm3, risk groups, AIDS-defining diseases, viral load; treatment outcome.

Aggregated data

Number of cases by age, sex, type of diagnosis, risk group.


Geographic distribution, sex distribution, age distribution, risk groups, main risk groups by country, date of HIV diagnosis, date of leishmaniasis diagnosis, correlation between leishmaniasis and HIV diagnosis, immunological parameters, parasitological diagnosis, clinical diagnosis stage, clinical features and AIDS-defining diseases.



• Evaluate the real extent of the problem and the main population at risk
• Improve the management and follow-up of co-infected patients (guidelines)
• Identify technical and operational difficulties faced by the network of institutions
• Evaluate the impact of intervention


A network helps improve:


• the reliability of data collection by the use of the standardized case report form
• coordination between the institutions
• the active medical surveillance of the main population at risk


Regional Offices:

See Regional Communicable Disease contacts on section "Communicable disease contacts in Regional Offices".

Headquarters: 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland

Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response (CSR)


E-mail: desjeuxp@who.ch / Surveillancekit@who.ch
Tel: (41 22) 791 38 70
Fax: (41 22) 791 4898 attn CSR
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