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cerrar este libroA Guide to the Development of on-site Sanitation (WHO; 1992; 246 pages)
Ver el documentoPreface
abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoPart I. Foundations of sanitary practice
cerrar esta carpetaPart II. Detailed design, construction, operation and maintenance
abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoChapter 5. Technical factors affecting excreta disposal
cerrar esta carpetaChapter 6. Operation and maintenance of on-site sanitation
Ver el documentoPit latrines
Ver el documentoSimple pit latrines
Ver el documentoVentilated pit latrines
Ver el documentoVentilated double-pit latrines
Ver el documentoPour-flush latrines
Ver el documentoOffset pour-flush latrines
Ver el documentoDouble-pit offset pour-flush latrines
Ver el documentoRaised pit latrines
Ver el documentoBorehole latrines
Ver el documentoSeptic tanks
Ver el documentoAqua-privies
Ver el documentoDisposal of effluent from septic tanks and aqua-privies
Ver el documentoComposting latrines
Ver el documentoMultiple latrines
Ver el documentoOther latrines
abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoChapter 7. Components and construction of latrines
abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoChapter. 8 Design examples
abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoPart III. Planning and development of on-site sanitation projects
Ver el documentoReferences
Ver el documentoSelected further reading
Ver el documentoGlossary of terms used in this book
Ver el documentoAnnex 1. Reuse of excreta
Ver el documentoAnnex 2. Sullage
Ver el documentoAnnex 3. Reviewers
Ver el documentoSelected WHO publications of related interest
Ver el documentoBack Cover


An aqua-privy is a latrine set above or adjacent to a septic tank and is useful in situations in which there is a limited water supply (Fig. 6.25). Where the latrine is above the tank, a chute drop-pipe, 100-150 mm in diameter, hangs below the squat hole or latrine seat so that excreta drops directly into the tank below water level. The bottom of the pipe should be 75 mm below the liquid level in the tank, providing a seal which prevents gases escaping into the latrine superstructure and limits the access of flies and mosquitos to the tank. Alternatively the toilet may be fitted with a pan with a water seal. Where the latrine is adjacent to the tank, the pan with water seal is connected by a short pipe. Effluent from the tank goes to a soakpit, drainage trench or sewer. There is usually only a small flow of effluent and it is therefore very concentrated.

Fig. 6.25. Aqua-privy


WHO 91444

In order to keep a seal at the bottom of the drop-pipe it is essential that the water level in the tank is maintained. If the tank is completely watertight, a bucketful of water every day, used to clean the latrine, is sufficient to compensate for any losses due to evaporation. However, it has been found in practice that many tanks leak. In some places sullage is discharged into the tank (Fig. 6.26), but even this has not proved sufficient to ensure that the water level is above the bottom of the drop-pipe at all times. In Calcutta, aqua-privies used by people who use water for anal cleaning have a water seal incorporated in the drop-pipe below the pan (Pacey, 1978).

Fig. 6.26. Aqua-privy with pan flushed by waste from a washing trough


WHO 91445

The design capacity of aqua-privy tanks may be calculated by the same procedure as for septic tanks. Regular removal of sludge and scum is essential, so a removable cover for desludging is required. A vent pipe is usually provided.

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