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cerrar este libroA Guide to the Development of on-site Sanitation (WHO; 1992; 246 pages)
Ver el documentoPreface
abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoPart I. Foundations of sanitary practice
cerrar esta carpetaPart II. Detailed design, construction, operation and maintenance
abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoChapter 5. Technical factors affecting excreta disposal
cerrar esta carpetaChapter 6. Operation and maintenance of on-site sanitation
Ver el documentoPit latrines
Ver el documentoSimple pit latrines
Ver el documentoVentilated pit latrines
Ver el documentoVentilated double-pit latrines
Ver el documentoPour-flush latrines
Ver el documentoOffset pour-flush latrines
Ver el documentoDouble-pit offset pour-flush latrines
Ver el documentoRaised pit latrines
Ver el documentoBorehole latrines
Ver el documentoSeptic tanks
Ver el documentoAqua-privies
Ver el documentoDisposal of effluent from septic tanks and aqua-privies
Ver el documentoComposting latrines
Ver el documentoMultiple latrines
Ver el documentoOther latrines
abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoChapter 7. Components and construction of latrines
abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoChapter. 8 Design examples
abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoPart III. Planning and development of on-site sanitation projects
Ver el documentoReferences
Ver el documentoSelected further reading
Ver el documentoGlossary of terms used in this book
Ver el documentoAnnex 1. Reuse of excreta
Ver el documentoAnnex 2. Sullage
Ver el documentoAnnex 3. Reviewers
Ver el documentoSelected WHO publications of related interest
Ver el documentoBack Cover
 

Raised pit latrines

Another way of dealing with the problem of difficult ground conditions close to the surface is to construct raised pit latrines. The pit is excavated as deep as possible, working at the end of the dry season in areas of high groundwater. The lining is extended above ground level until the desired pit volume is achieved.

If the pit extends more than 1.5 m below the ground there will probably be sufficient leaching area below ground for a pit latrine having a full depth of 3.5 m. In such cases, the lining above ground should be sealed by plastering both sides (Fig. 6.17). The minimum below-ground depth depends on the amount of water used in the pit and the permeability of the soil. Where insufficient infiltration area can be obtained below ground level, the raised portion of the pit can be surrounded by a mound of soil. The section of the lining above ground (excluding the top 0.5 m) can be used for infiltration provided the mound is made of permeable soil, well compacted with a stable side slope, and is thick enough to prevent filtrate seeping out of the sides (Fig. 6.18). Earth mounds are not recommended on clay soils as the filtrate is likely to seep out at the base of the mound rather than infiltrate the ground.


Fig. 6.17 Raised pit latrine

 

WHO 91436


Fig. 6.18. Mound latrine

 

WHO 91437

Raised pits can be used in combination with any other type of pit latrine (VIP, pour-flush, double-pit). A common application is where the groundwater level is close to the surface. A slight raising of the pit may prevent splashing of the user or blockage of the pit inlet pipe by floating scum.

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