1. In this document, the term refugee is used for conflict-affected populations, which may include internally displaced persons, refugees or returned refugees.
2. In 1998, WHO and the international community changed the term sexually transmitted disease (STD) to sexually transmitted infection (STI). The word “disease” was considered inappropriate in view of the existence of asymptomatic infections in both men and women. The change was furthermore driven by the new public health approach to contribute to the prevention of transmission of HIV through appropriate management of STIs. (Reference: WHO/HIS/1998)
3. Body fluids containing visible blood, semen and vaginal secretions. Care should also be taken with tissues and cerebrospinal, synovial, pleural, peritoneal, pericardial and amniotic fluids. Feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, saliva and vomitus do not transmit HIV unless they contain visible blood, or when blood contamination is likely, such as in the dental setting where blood contamination of saliva is predictable.
4. Centers for Disease Control. Update: Universal precautions for prevention of transmission for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care and public-safety workers. MMWR 1989;38 (S-6):1-36. www.cdc.gov/publications.htm
5. De Cock, Kevin M. et. al., Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission in Resource-Poor Countries, Translating Research Into Practice, JAMA. March 1, 2000-vol 283, No 9, 1175-1181.
6. Contopoulos-loannidis, DG, Ioannidis, JP. Maternal cell-free viramia in the natural history of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. A meta-analysis. J AIDS Human Retrovirol, 1998; 18:126-35.
7. McGinn, T, Reproductive Health of War-Affected Populations: What Do We Know? International Family Planning Perspectives, December 2000.
8. Tarantola D., Hannum J., Boland R. Berezin B., & Mann J., Policies and Programs on Sexually Transmitted Infections: The gap between intent and action, World Health Organization and The Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights. October 1997.
9. The SPHERE Project, Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response, Geneva 2000.
10. An Inter-agency Field Manual: Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations. UNHCR/UNFPA/WHO, 1999. www.rhrc.org
11. The material resources for the MISP are available in the UNFPA Reproductive Health Kit for Emergency Situations at: www.unfpa.org or email email@example.com. The material resources are also available in the New Emergency Health Kit available from WHO at: www.helid.desastres.net
12. WHO Blood Safety, Blood Transfusion: www.who.int/dsa/caf98/blood8.htm
13. An Inter-agency Field Manual: Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations. Chapter 5, Sexually Transmitted Infections including HIV/AIDS. UNHCR/UNFPA/WHO, 1999. www.rhrc.org
14. International Rescue Committee, Protecting the Future: A guide to incorporating HIV prevention and care in refugee settings. Chapter 13, Prevention of transmission in health care settings, New York, NY 2001. www.theirc.org
15. Sexual Violence against Refugees: Guidelines on Prevention and Response. UNHCR, Geneva. 1995. (These guidelines are currently under revision.)
16. An Inter-agency Field Manual: Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations. Chapter 4, Sexual and Gender-based Violence UNHCR/UNFPA/WHO, 1999. www.rhrc.org
17. An Inter-agency Field Manual: Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations. UNHCR/UNFPA/WHO, 1999. www.rhrc.org
18. International Rescue Committee, Protecting the Future: A guide to incorporating HIV prevention and care in refugee settings. New York, NY 2001. www.theirc.org
19. United Nations Population Fund, Reproductive Health Kit. www.unfpa.org
20. Voluntary Counseling and Testing Technical Update. UNAIDS, May 2000.
22. WHO Blood Safety, Blood Transfusion: www.who.int/dsa/caf98/blood8.htm
23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis. MMWR 2001;50(No. RR-11): inclusive page numbers.
24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Service Statement. Management of Possible Sexual, Injecting-Drug-Use, or Other Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV, Including Considerations Related to Antiretroviral Therapy. MMWR 47 (RR17); 1-14, 1998. www.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/m0054952/m0054952.asp
25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Services Report Summarizes Current Scientific Knowledge on the Use of Post-Exposure Antiretroviral Therapy for Non-Occupational Exposures, 1998. www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/facts/petfact.htm
26. See: www.unaids.org/publications/documents/mtct/mtct_TU4.ppt
27. UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/UNAIDS Inter-agency Task Force on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV, New Date on the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and their Policy Implications:
Conclusions and Recommendations, October 11-13, 2000.
28. UNAIDS, Technical Update, Access to Drugs, October 1998.
Special thanks to:
Mary Haour Knipe