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fermer ce livreA Guide to the Development of on-site Sanitation (WHO; 1992; 246 pages)
Afficher le documentPreface
fermer ce répertoirePart I. Foundations of sanitary practice
fermer ce répertoireChapter 1. The need for on-site sanitation
Afficher le documentIntroduction
Afficher le documentHistorical evidence
Afficher le documentThe present situation
Afficher le documentConstraints
Afficher le documentPriorities
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuChapter 2. Sanitation and disease transmission
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuChapter 3. Social and cultural considerations
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuChapter 4. Technical options
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuPart II. Detailed design, construction, operation and maintenance
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuPart III. Planning and development of on-site sanitation projects
Afficher le documentReferences
Afficher le documentSelected further reading
Afficher le documentGlossary of terms used in this book
Afficher le documentAnnex 1. Reuse of excreta
Afficher le documentAnnex 2. Sullage
Afficher le documentAnnex 3. Reviewers
Afficher le documentSelected WHO publications of related interest
Afficher le documentBack Cover
 

The present situation

Improved sanitation and domestic water supply warrant high priority for investment in developing countries where they are at the forefront of health improvements in both rural and urban communities. The importance attached to sanitation is part of a movement towards satisfaction of basic human needs - health care, housing, clean water, appropriate sanitation and adequate food. This movement has been instrumental in promoting a shift from curative to preventive medicine and in the designation of the 1980s as the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.

Decade approaches

The decision to designate the Decade was taken at the United Nations Water Conference held in Mar del Plata in 1977. The Conference also agreed a plan of action, recommending that national programmes should give priority to:

 

• the rural and urban underserved populations;
• application of self-reliant and self-sustaining programmes;
• use of socially relevant systems;
• association of the community in all stages of development;
• complementarity of sanitation with water supply; and
• the association of water supply and sanitation with health and other sector programmes.

The shortfall in sanitation

The percentage of the total population in the developing countries of the WHO Regions who do not have adequate sanitation is shown in Table 1.1, which is derived from statistics available to the Organization (WHO, 1990).

Table 1.1. Percentage of the population without adequate sanitationa

WHO region

1970

1975

1980

1988

 

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

Africa

53

77

25

72

46

80

46

79

Americas

24

76

20

75

44

80

10

69

Eastern Mediterranean

38

88

37

86

43

93

6

80

South-East Asia

67

96

69

96

70

94

59

89

Western Pacific

19

81

19

57

7

37

11

31

Global total

46

91

50

89

50

87

33

81

 

a From WHO, 1990.

Notwithstanding some inaccuracies in reporting, there is abundant evidence that the scale of the problem is greatest in countries with a low gross national product (GNP) and especially in rural communities. There are also marked disparities in environmental conditions and in standards of health within the developing countries and particularly in the major cities.

Problems of urban growth

Rates of urban growth of greater than 5% per year have produced concentrations of poor people in city-centre slums and in squatter areas on the periphery of towns and cities. Health risks are high in these areas. High-density living promotes the spread of airborne respiratory infections and hygiene-related diseases such as diarrhoea. Malnutrition is common and hence people are more susceptible to water-related infections. Such infections can spread rapidly since water sources are liable to faecal pollution. A major challenge for those concerned with environmental health is the design and introduction of excreta disposal systems appropriate to these high-density, low-income communities.

Rural problems

There is an equal need for the hygienic disposal of excreta and the promotion of health in rural areas. Rural communities may have evolved what they perceive to be satisfactory disposal systems, but the introduction of improved sanitation facilities can form a useful part of broader rural development programmes. The level of sanitation provision should be linked to that of other facilities in the community, and to the community's ability to support (financially and culturally) and maintain such provisions.

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