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fermer ce livreA Guide to the Development of on-site Sanitation (WHO; 1992; 246 pages)
Afficher le documentPreface
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuPart I. Foundations of sanitary practice
fermer ce répertoirePart II. Detailed design, construction, operation and maintenance
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuChapter 5. Technical factors affecting excreta disposal
fermer ce répertoireChapter 6. Operation and maintenance of on-site sanitation
Afficher le documentPit latrines
Afficher le documentSimple pit latrines
Afficher le documentVentilated pit latrines
Afficher le documentVentilated double-pit latrines
Afficher le documentPour-flush latrines
Afficher le documentOffset pour-flush latrines
Afficher le documentDouble-pit offset pour-flush latrines
Afficher le documentRaised pit latrines
Afficher le documentBorehole latrines
Afficher le documentSeptic tanks
Afficher le documentAqua-privies
Afficher le documentDisposal of effluent from septic tanks and aqua-privies
Afficher le documentComposting latrines
Afficher le documentMultiple latrines
Afficher le documentOther latrines
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuChapter 7. Components and construction of latrines
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuChapter. 8 Design examples
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuPart III. Planning and development of on-site sanitation projects
Afficher le documentReferences
Afficher le documentSelected further reading
Afficher le documentGlossary of terms used in this book
Afficher le documentAnnex 1. Reuse of excreta
Afficher le documentAnnex 2. Sullage
Afficher le documentAnnex 3. Reviewers
Afficher le documentSelected WHO publications of related interest
Afficher le documentBack Cover
 

Aqua-privies

An aqua-privy is a latrine set above or adjacent to a septic tank and is useful in situations in which there is a limited water supply (Fig. 6.25). Where the latrine is above the tank, a chute drop-pipe, 100-150 mm in diameter, hangs below the squat hole or latrine seat so that excreta drops directly into the tank below water level. The bottom of the pipe should be 75 mm below the liquid level in the tank, providing a seal which prevents gases escaping into the latrine superstructure and limits the access of flies and mosquitos to the tank. Alternatively the toilet may be fitted with a pan with a water seal. Where the latrine is adjacent to the tank, the pan with water seal is connected by a short pipe. Effluent from the tank goes to a soakpit, drainage trench or sewer. There is usually only a small flow of effluent and it is therefore very concentrated.


Fig. 6.25. Aqua-privy

 

WHO 91444

In order to keep a seal at the bottom of the drop-pipe it is essential that the water level in the tank is maintained. If the tank is completely watertight, a bucketful of water every day, used to clean the latrine, is sufficient to compensate for any losses due to evaporation. However, it has been found in practice that many tanks leak. In some places sullage is discharged into the tank (Fig. 6.26), but even this has not proved sufficient to ensure that the water level is above the bottom of the drop-pipe at all times. In Calcutta, aqua-privies used by people who use water for anal cleaning have a water seal incorporated in the drop-pipe below the pan (Pacey, 1978).


Fig. 6.26. Aqua-privy with pan flushed by waste from a washing trough

 

WHO 91445

The design capacity of aqua-privy tanks may be calculated by the same procedure as for septic tanks. Regular removal of sludge and scum is essential, so a removable cover for desludging is required. A vent pipe is usually provided.

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