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fermer ce livreA Guide to the Development of on-site Sanitation (WHO; 1992; 246 pages)
Afficher le documentPreface
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuPart I. Foundations of sanitary practice
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuPart II. Detailed design, construction, operation and maintenance
fermer ce répertoirePart III. Planning and development of on-site sanitation projects
fermer ce répertoireChapter 9. Planning
Afficher le documentThe demand for sanitation
Afficher le documentProject definition
Afficher le documentBackground information
Afficher le documentComparison and selection of systems
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuChapter 10. Institutional, economic and financial factors
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuChapter 11. Development
Afficher le documentReferences
Afficher le documentSelected further reading
Afficher le documentGlossary of terms used in this book
Afficher le documentAnnex 1. Reuse of excreta
Afficher le documentAnnex 2. Sullage
Afficher le documentAnnex 3. Reviewers
Afficher le documentSelected WHO publications of related interest
Afficher le documentBack Cover

The demand for sanitation

The initial demand for provision or improvement of sanitation in a particular area may come from the local people themselves or from a small group of active leaders in the community. Alternatively, the initiative may come from health officials, a government department, the organization responsible for water and sanitation, a bilateral aid agency, or a national or international voluntary organization. Ideally, sanitation improvements should be carried out in accordance with a national or regional sector plan and the adopted primary health care programme. A sector plan often covers both sanitation and water supply. It indicates the number of facilities to be provided, the number of people to be served in each district on a year-by-year basis during the planning period, and the resources needed. Particular attention is usually given to requirements for internal and external funding and to deficiencies in personnel of various categories.

There may be several reasons for a sanitation programme.


• There may be a genuine concern for health accompanied by an awareness that a high local level of disease is associated with existing sanitation practices.

• Household latrines may be called for because of the convenience they offer to users.

• Good sanitation may be a status symbol.

• Existing excreta disposal methods may result in unacceptable pollution of surface water, soil or groundwater.

• Sometimes a demand for improved sanitation is associated with water supply. For example, a funding agency may require latrines to be constructed before it will provide piped water, or a water authority may wish to protect the catchment area for the supply to a nearby town by eliminating indiscriminate defecation. An increase in the amount of water provided to an area may lead to a demand for better wastewater disposal.

Table 9.1. The project cycle

Government ministries and donor agencies

Implementing agency



Definition of target population


Felt need for improved sanitation

Determination of economic and health indicators, present service coverage and standards, objectives and policies, financial implications, staffing requirements, and training needs


Exposure to health education

Assignment of planning responsibilities


Pre-feasibility surveys

Consideration of alternative projects to meet objectives taking into account technical, social, health, environmental, financial and economic criteria

Technical and social surveys

Response to questions by health workers and government officials about health, wealth, water and sanitation


Planning with the community


Feasibility demonstration

Detailed design and analysis of preferred/chosen project

Proving of recommended range of technologies at affordable price to satisfaction of representatives of proposed target group

Discussion regarding experimentation with affordable means of improving sanitation

Appraisal and approval

Independent check on planning, usually by representatives of funding source


Investment decision


Release of funds for project implementation





Training, administrative support procedures, proving technology

Training of local people to assist with programme


Determination of financial, material and technical support

Invitation to local artisans and contractors to participate


Drawings made available



Mass promotion in the community

Publicity about the programme


Health education, use of media

Systems available to copy


Demonstration units as "sanitation supermarket"

Drawings made available


Financial, material and technical assistance where appropriate

Financial assistance available


Local artisans and contractors available to help with building


Household decision as to purchase of sanitation system

Operation and maintenance


Advice on responsibility of household to use and care for on-site system

Use of facilities


Identification of further projects

Identification of positive and negative aspects; reformulation of design criteria

Comments regarding desired improvements

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