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fermer ce livreGuidelines for the Treatment of Malaria (WHO; 2006; 266 pages) Voir le document au format PDF
Afficher le documentGlossary
Afficher le documentAbbreviations
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu1. Introduction
Afficher le document2. The clinical disease
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu3. Treatment objectives
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu4. Diagnosis of malaria
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu5. Resistance to antimalarial medicines9
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu6. Antimalarial treatment policy
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu7. Treatment of uncomplicated P. Falciparum malaria10
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu8. Treatment of severe falciparum malaria14
fermer ce répertoire9. Treatment of malaria caused by P. vivax, P. ovale or P. malariae19
Afficher le document9.1 Diagnosis
Afficher le document9.2 Susceptibility of P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae to antimalarials
Afficher le document9.3 Treatment of uncomplicated vivax malaria
Afficher le document9.4 Treatment of severe vivax malaria
Afficher le document9.5 Treatment of malaria caused by P. ovale and P. malariae
Afficher le document9.6 Monitoring therapeutic efficacy for vivax malaria
Afficher le document10. Mixed malaria infections
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu11. Complex emergencies and epidemics
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuAnnexes
 

9. Treatment of malaria caused by P. vivax, P. ovale or P. malariae19

19 Further information is provided in Annex 10.


P. vivax, the second most important species causing human malaria, accounts for about 40% of malaria cases worldwide and is the dominant malaria species outside Africa. It is prevalent in endemic areas in the Middle East, Asia, Oceania and Central and South America. In Africa, it is rare except in the Horn and it is almost absent in West Africa. In most areas where P. vivax is prevalent, malaria transmission rates are low, and the affected populations therefore achieve little immunity to this parasite. Consequently, people of all ages are at risk. The other two human malaria parasite species P. malariae and P. ovale are generally less prevalent but are distributed worldwide especially in the tropical areas of Africa.

Among the four species of Plasmodium that affect humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale form hypnozoites, parasite stages in the liver that can result in multiple relapses of infection, weeks to months after the primary infection. Thus a single infection causes repeated bouts of illness. This affects the development and schooling of children and debilitates adults, thereby impairing human and economic development in affected populations. The objective of treating malaria caused by P. vivax and P. ovale is to cure both the blood stage and the liver stage infections, and thereby prevent both relapse and recrudescence. This is called radical cure. Infection with P. vivax during pregnancy, as with P. falciparum, reduces birth weight. In primigravidae, the reduction is approximately two-thirds of that associated with P. falciparum (110 g compared to 170 g), but this adverse effect does not decline with successive pregnancies as with P. falciparum infections. Indeed, in the one large series in which this was studied, it increased. Reduction in birth weight (<2500 g) increases the risk of neonatal death.

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