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fermer ce livreRadiation Emergency Response - Internal Guidance (WHO; 2002; 27 pages)
Afficher le documentFOREWORD
Afficher le document1. REMPAN AND ITS ROLE IN RADIATION EMERGENCY
Afficher le document2. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT INTERNATIONAL AND LOCAL RESPONSE TO A MAJOR NUCLEAR ACCIDENT IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE “CONVENTION ON EARLY NOTIFICATION “ AND “ASSISTANCE CONVENTION”
Afficher le document3. INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL ACTIONS IN RESPONSE TO A RADIATION EMERGENCY
Afficher le document4. PATHWAY OF NOTIFICATION ABOUT RADIATION EMERGENCY
Afficher le document5. PATHWAYS IN WHO FOR IMMEDIATE INFORMATION ABOUT THE ACCIDENT
Afficher le document6. ACTIONS BY THE REMPAN-COORDINATOR IN RESPONSE TO THE OBTAINED INFORMATION
Afficher le document7. HIGH LEVEL WHO AUTHORITY’S ACTIONS AFTER RECEIVING VERIFIED OFFICIAL INFORMATION ABOUT A RADIATION ACCIDENT
Afficher le document8. ACTIONS OF THE REMPAN COORDINATOR IN RESPONSE TO REQUESTING MEDICAL ASSISTANCE BY AN ACCIDENT STATE OR AFFECTED COUNTRY (ASSISTANCE CONVENTION)
fermer ce répertoire9. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IS GIVEN IN ANNEXES I-III
Afficher le documentANNEX I. WHO’s Emergency Response to Radiation Accidents/List of WHO staff to notify immediately
Afficher le documentANNEX II. Selected information from the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Jointly sponsored by FAO, IAEA, OECD/NEA, PAHO, WHO, Vienna 1996
Afficher le documentANNEX III. Key information on Stable Iodine Prophylaxis
 

ANNEX II. Selected information from the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Jointly sponsored by FAO, IAEA, OECD/NEA, PAHO, WHO, Vienna 1996

The management of accident situations outlined in the standards are based on the ICRP principles for planning and deciding interventions to cope with a radiological emergency. These principles are as follows:

¨ All possible efforts should be made to prevent serious deterministic health effects;

¨ The intervention should be justified, in the sense that introduction of the protective measure should achieve more good than harm;

¨ The levels at which the intervention is introduced and at which it is later withdrawn should be optimized, so that the protective measure(s) will produce a maximum net benefit.

The main criterion for deciding on intervention is the mean individual dose.

Dose levels at which intervention is expected to be undertaken under any circumstances (be justified) are given in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1. Intervention level of dose for acute exposure

Organ or tissue

Projected absorbed dose (Gy) to the organ or tissue in less than 2 days

Whole body (bone marrow)

1

Lung

6

Skin

3

Thyroid

5

Lens of the eye

2

Gonads

3

Note:

The possibility of deterministic effects for doses greater than about 0.1 Gy (delivered over less than two days) to the foetus should be taken into account in considering justification and optimization of actual intervention levels for immediate protective action for pregnant women.

Table 2. Intervention level of dose rate for chronic exposure

Organ or tissue

Equivalent dose rate (Sv.a-1)

Gonads

0.2

Lens of the eye

0.1

Bone marrow

0.4

Intervention levels in emergency exposure situations are expressed in terms of avertable dose, i.e. a protective action is indicated if the dose that can be averted is greater than the corresponding intervention level. The standards provide the values which can be taken as starting points for the judgement required for decisions to select levels for emergency exposure situations. These values have been developed by IAEA and summarized in Table 3.

Table 3. Recommended generic intervention levels for urgent protective measures

Protective action

Generic intervention level (dose avertable by the protective action)

Sheltering

10 mSv in a period of no more than two days

Temporary evacuation

50 mSv in a period of no more than one week

Iodine prophylaxis

100 mSv (absorbed dose due to radioiodine)*)

*) For children WHO recommends 10mSv.

The recommended generic action levels for foodstuffs are presented in Table 4.

Table 4. Generic action levels for foodstuffs (Bq/kg)

Radionuclides

Food for general consumption (Bq/kg)

Milk and infant foods drinking water (Bq/kg)

Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103,

1000

1000

Ru-106, Sr-89

1000

1000

I-131

1000

100

Sr-90

100

100

Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239

10

1

It is noted that levels given in Table 4 apply to situations where alternative food supplies are readily available. Where food supplies are scarce, higher levels can apply.

Table 4 is based on, and consistent with, the Codex Alimentarius Commission’s guideline levels for radionuclides in food moving in international trade following accidental contamination, but it is limited to the nuclides usually considered relevant to emergency exposure situations.

The generic optimized intervention levels recommended for temporary relocation and permanent resettlement are given in Table 5.

Table 5. Recommended generic intervention levels for temporary relocation and permanent resettlement

Actions

Avertable dose

Initiating temporary relocation

30 mSv in a month

Terminating temporary relocation

10 mSv in a month

Permanent relocation

1 Sv in lifetime

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