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fermer ce livreWHO Recommended Surveillance Standards (WHO; 1999; 157 pages)
Afficher le documentAcknowledgements
Afficher le documentAcronyms
Afficher le documentIntroduction
Afficher le documentNational Coordination of Communicable Disease Surveillance
Afficher le documentExplanatory notes
Afficher le documentSurveillance activities: criteria and WHO Department
Afficher le documentCommunicable disease contacts in Regional Offices
fermer ce répertoireDiseases
Afficher le documentB20-B21-B22-B23-B24 AIDS
Afficher le documentA22 Anthrax
Afficher le documentA23 Brucellosis
Afficher le documentA00 Cholera
Afficher le documentA81.0 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Afficher le documentA90, A91 Dengue fever (A90) including Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) & Dengue shock syndrome (DSS, A91)
Afficher le documentA36 Diphtheria
Afficher le documentB72 Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease)
Afficher le documentA98.3, A98.4 Ebola-Marburg viral diseases
Afficher le documentA83.0 Japanese encephalitis
Afficher le documentB74 Lymphatic filariasis
Afficher le documentB96.3 Haemophilus influenzae type b
Afficher le documentB15-B17 Acute viral hepatitis
Afficher le documentB20-B24 HIV infection
Afficher le documentJ10, J11 Influenza
Afficher le documentA96.2 Lassa fever
Afficher le documentA48.1 Legionellosis
Afficher le documentB55.1, B55.2 Cutaneous leishmaniasis
Afficher le documentLeishmania / HIV co-infections
Afficher le documentB55.0 Visceral leishmaniasis
Afficher le documentA30 Leprosy
Afficher le documentA27 Leptospirosis
Afficher le documentB50-54 Malaria
Afficher le documentB05 Measles
Afficher le documentA39 Meningococcal disease
Afficher le documentA87 Viral meningitis
Afficher le documentB73 Onchocerciasis
Afficher le documentA37.0 Pertussis
Afficher le documentA20 Plague
Afficher le documentA36 Poliomyelitis
Afficher le documentA82 Rabies
Afficher le documentA02.0 Salmonellosis
Afficher le documentB65 Schistosomiasis
Afficher le documentA50-52 Syphilis
Afficher le documentA33 Tetanus, neonatal
Afficher le documentB56-0, B56-1 African trypanosomiasis
Afficher le documentB57 American trypanosomiasis
Afficher le documentA15-A19 Tuberculosis
Afficher le documentA75.3 Scrub typhus
Afficher le documentA95.9 Yellow fever
ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuSyndromes
Afficher le documentAnnex 1 Software free and in the public domain
Afficher le documentAnnex 2 Proposed surveillance definitions
Afficher le documentAnnex 3 Role and use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and mapping for epidemiological surveillance

A27 Leptospirosis


This zoonosis with worldwide distribution occurs seasonally in countries with a humid subtropical or tropical climate. It is often linked to occupation, sometimes in outbreaks. Feral and domestic animal species may serve as sources of infection with one of the Leptospira serovars. Infection is transmitted to humans through direct contact with (the urine of) infected animals or a urine-contaminated environment, mainly surface waters, soil and plants. The course of disease in humans ranges from mild to lethal. Leptospirosis is probably underreported in many countries because of difficult clinical diagnosis and lack of diagnostic laboratory services. Surveillance provides the basis for intervention strategies in human or veterinary public health.


Clinical description

Acute febrile illness with headache, myalgia and prostration associated with any of the following symptoms:


• conjunctival suffusion
• meningeal irritation
• anuria or oliguria and/or proteinuria
• jaundice
• haemorrhages (from the intestines; lung bleeding is notorious in some areas)
• cardiac arrhythmia or failure
• skin rash

and a history of exposure to infected animals or an environment contaminated with animal urine.

Other common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, arthralgia.

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis


• Isolation (and typing) from blood or other clinical materials through culture of pathogenic leptospires

• Positive serology, preferably Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), using a range of Leptospira strains for antigens that should be representative of local strains

Case classification

Suspected: A case that is compatible with the clinical description. Probable: Not applicable.

Confirmed: A suspect case that is confirmed in a competent laboratory.


Note: Leptospirosis is difficult to diagnose clinically in areas where diseases with symptoms similar to those of leptospirosis occur frequently.


Immediate case-based reporting of suspected or confirmed cases from peripheral level (hospital/general practitioner/laboratory) to intermediate level. All cases must be investigated.

Routine reporting of aggregated data of confirmed cases from intermediate to central level. Hospital-based surveillance may give information on severe cases of leptospirosis. Serosurveillance may give information on whether leptospiral infections occur or not in certain areas or populations.

International: The International Leptospirosis Society* collects worldwide data:

Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Department of Biomedical Research, NH Swellengrebel Laboratory, Meibergdreef 39,1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands


Tel: 31 20 566 5441
Fax: 31 20 697 1841
ILS home page:


Individual patient record for reporting and investigation


• Age, sex, geographical information, occupation
• Clinical symptoms (morbidity, mortality)
• Hospitalization (Y/N)
• History and place of exposure (animal contact, environment)
• Microbiological and serological data
• Date of diagnosis
• Rainfall, flooding

Aggregated data for reporting


• Number of cases
• Number of hospitalizations
• Number of deaths
• Number of cases by type (causative serovar/serogroup) of leptospirosis


Number of cases by: age, sex, occupation, area, date of onset, causative serovars/serogroups, (presumptive) infection source, transmission conditions (graphs, tables, maps).

Frequency distribution of signs and symptoms by case and causative serovar (tables).

Reports of outbreaks, reports of preventive measures, surveillance of the human population and populations of feral and domestic animals.



• Assess the magnitude of the problem in different areas and risk groups/areas/conditions
• Identify outbreaks
• Identify animal sources of infection
• Monitor for emergence of leptospirosis in new areas and new risk (occupational) groups
• Design rational control or prevention methods
• Identify new serovars and their distribution
• Inform on locally occurring serovars for a representative range in the MAT


Serology by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) may provide presumptive information on causative serogroups. Attempts should be made to isolate leptospires, and isolates should be typed to assess locally circulating serovars.

Questioning the patient may provide clues to infection source and transmission conditions. Animal serology may give presumptive information on serogroup status of the infection Isolation followed by typing gives definite information on serovar.


Regional Offices

See Regional Communicable Disease contacts on section "Communicable disease contacts in Regional Offices".

Headquarters: 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland

Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Response (CSR)


E-mail: /
Tel: (41 22) 791 2531/4687/2111
Fax: (41 22) 791 4893/0746 attn CSR
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